## Numbers and Quantifiers

### Numbers

Tatari Faran uses a number system based on base-5 counting. There are 5 sets of number words, each of which consists of multiples of a power of 5. These are combined to refer to numbers in between.

#### Base numbers

The following table shows the first set of numbers. Many of these number words are derived from nouns which serve as a mnemonic for their value:

Orthography | Value | Cognate | Mnemonic |
---|---|---|---|

jiras | 1 | jiri | a finger |

bunas | 2 | bunai | two thumbs |

di'as | 3 | - | - |

ni'as | 4 | - | - |

pikas | 5 | pika | a hand |

These are the multiples of 1 (5^{0}).

The next set of numbers are multiples of 5:

Orthography | Value | Cognate | Mnemonic |
---|---|---|---|

(pikas) | (5) | (pika) | (a hand) |

heibikas | 10 | he- + pika | hands (i. e., two hands) |

dibikas | 15 | di'as + pika | 3 hands |

kuanas | 20 | kuana | a family |

meijas | 25 | meija | a bunch |

We have repeated *pikas* here, because it is the first multiple
of 5.

The third set are multiples of 25 (5^{2}). Again, we repeat the
last member of the previous set, since it coincides with the first multiple
of 25.

Orthography | Value | Cognate | Mnemonic |
---|---|---|---|

(meijas) | (25) | (meija) | (a bunch) |

hujas | 50 | hujai | a sackful |

teri'as | 75 | teri'an | a crowd |

tan'as | 100 | tan'at | an assembly |

titiras | 125 | titiran | many |

The fourth set are multiples of 125 (5^{3}):

Orthography | Value | Cognate | Mnemonic |
---|---|---|---|

(titiras) | (125) | (titiran) | (many) |

heiniras | 250 | - | possible portamenteau of he- +
titiras? |

keiniras | 375 | ? | - |

buanas | 500 | - | - |

daranas | 625 | - | - |

Finally, the last set consists of multiples of 625 (5^{5}):

Orthography | Value | Cognate | Mnemonic |
---|---|---|---|

(daranas) | (625) | - | - |

tiranas | 1250 | - | - |

heiranas | 1875 | - | These seem to be analogies of heiniras and
keiniras |

keiranas | 2500 | - | |

fiiranas | 3125 | fii + -ranas | reaching the sky |

#### Compound numbers

Since each of the basic numbers shown in the above tables are formed from
different stems, they can be unambiguously combined to refer to numbers that
are not multiples of a power of 5. The trailing *-s* is dropped from all
but the last word in the compound. The order of combination is from
least-significant to most-significant. For example:

jirapikas = 1 + 5 = 6

bunapikas = 2 + 5 = 7

di'apikas = 3 + 5 = 8

ni'apikas = 4 + 5 = 9

Combining a number stem with itself is not allowed, so one cannot say
**pikapikas* to refer to 10; rather, one uses the next multiple of 5:
*heibikas*. Thereafter, the smaller numbers are combined with
*heibikas* to count past 10:

jiraheibikas = 1 + 10 = 11

bunaheibikas = 2 + 10 = 12

And so forth, until one reaches 15, where *dibikas* is used as the
basis for counting up to the next multiple of 5:

dibikas = 15

jiraribikas = 1 + 15 = 16

bunaribikas = 2 + 15 = 17

Note the spelling rule that the phoneme /d/ is spelled *r* when
medial, hence *jira(s) + dibikas* = *jiraribikas*.

Once one reaches multiples of 25, more than two number stems may be combined. For example:

hujas = 50

heibikahujas = 10 + 50 = 60

jiraheibikahujas = 1 + 10 + 50 = 61

bunaheibikahujas = 2 + 10 + 50 = 62

And so forth.

#### Approximate numbers

It should be noted that the values given for these number words are precise
only when used in calculations. The number words themselves, especially the
base number words, are often used only approximately in casual speech. Compound
numbers, especially those that are precise to the unit, are usually only used
when doing calculations. Short compounds of large numbers (e. g.,
*heibikahujas*) may also used in an approximate sense in casual
speech.

Sometimes in casual speech the adjective *tumanas ... tsit* (precise,
exact) is used to indicate an exact quantity.

san pikas.

san |

person |

pikas. |

five |

A handful of people.

san pikas tumanas.

san |

person |

pikas |

five |

tumanas. |

exact |

Exactly 5 people.

### Cardinals

Cardinals are numbers used to refer to the *quantity* of a noun
referent. There are two types of cardinals: the *indefinite* cardinal,
and the *definite* cardinal.

Indefinite cardinals are used with nouns that refer to things that have not yet been introduced in the conversation. Indefinite cardinals are formed by placing a number in the adjectival position. For example:

san jiras.

san |

person |

jiras. |

one |

One man.

bunari di'as.

bunari |

woman |

di'as. |

three |

Three women.

kiran heibikas.

kiran |

young_man |

heibikas. |

ten |

Ten young men.

Definite cardinals are used to refer to things that have already been introduced in the conversation. They are formed by placing the partitive case of the noun being modified in the adjectival position of the number:

jiras sanis.

jiras |

one |

san-is. |

person-PART |

One of the men.

di'as bunaris.

di'as |

three |

bunari-s. |

woman-PART |

Three of the women; or, the three women.

heibikas kiranis.

heibikas |

ten |

kiran-is. |

young_man-PART |

Ten of the young men; or, the ten young men.

Note that although the literal meaning of the partitive case is a subset of
the noun referent, definite cardinals can refer to the entire set of referents
as well. For example, *di'as bunaris* literally means “three of
the women”, but it may simply mean *the three women* if there are
only three women mentioned previously.

### Ordinals

Ordinals are numbers that refer to one of an ordered sequence of noun referents. There are two ways of forming ordinals in Tatari Faran.

The first way is to use a number with the postposition *te'*:

san jiras te'.

san |

person |

jiras |

one |

te'. |

ORD |

The first man.

diru bunas te'.

diru |

girl |

bunas |

two |

te'. |

ORD |

The second girl.

The second way is to use the compositive form of the numbers:

san ijirasan.

san |

person |

i-jiras-an. |

COMP-one-COMP |

The best (number one) man.

diru ibunasan.

diru |

girl |

i-bunas-an. |

COMP-two-COMP |

The second best girl.

The difference between these two forms is that the first is used for ranking in an arbitrary sequence (e. g., the second girl on my right—she just happens to be the second in line), whereas the second is used for ranking in terms of quality or achievement (the girl who came second in the race—she is the second-best in ability, not just because she happens to be standing second in line).

### Multipliers

The number words may also be used with the postpositional adverb *me*
to indicate repetition:

jiras me.

jiras |

one |

me. |

time |

Once.

bunas me.

bunas |

two |

me. |

time |

Twice.

banta jiras me.

banta |

jump |

jiras |

one |

me. |

time |

Jump once.

banta di'as me.

banta |

jump |

di'as |

three |

me. |

time |

Jump three times.

tara' kei tsana bunas me huu na aniin.

tara' |

3SG |

kei |

ORG.F |

tsana |

speak |

bunas |

two |

me |

time |

huu |

1SG |

na |

RCP.M |

aniin. |

FIN |

She spoke to me twice.

### Quantifiers

Quantifiers are a general class of words in Tatari Faran that includes the cardinal numbers. There are also other, non-numerical, quantifiers, which can be used in the same fashion as the cardinals.

Indefinite quantifiers are formed just like indefinite cardinals, by placing the quantifier in adjectival position:

san meija.

san |

person |

meija. |

many |

Many people.

san bara.

san |

person |

bara. |

some |

Some people.

Definite quantifiers are formed just like definite cardinals, by placing the partitive case of the noun after the number:

meija sanis.

meija |

many |

san-is. |

people-PART |

Many of the people. (Or, the many people.)

bara sanis.

bara |

some |

san-is. |

people-PART |

The rest of the people.

### Fractions

#### Basic Fractions

A small number of commonly-used fractions have dedicated words:

Orthography | Value |
---|---|

na' | half, 1/2 |

di'is | one-third, 1/3 |

ni'is | quarter, 1/4 |

pikis | one-fifth, 1/5 |

These words are employed like numbers and quantifiers, appearing in adjectival position in the indefinite case, or as the head noun followed by a partitive noun in the definite case.

kere na' sa.

kere |

cake |

na' |

half |

sa |

CVY.M |

Half of a cake.

na' keres sa.

na' |

half |

kere-s |

cake-PART |

sa. |

CVY.M |

The half of the cake.

bihuun di'is so.

bihuun |

pepper |

di'is |

one_third |

so |

CVY.N |

One-third of some pepper.

di'is bihuunis so.

di'is |

one_third |

bihuun-is |

pepper-PART |

so. |

CVY.N |

One-third of the pepper.

Sometimes *na'* is also used in an approximate sense, meaning "some
of", "a bit of", as a colloquial variation of *bara*. A similar word is
*jiris* "a pinch of", "a tidbit of", usually used with powdered
substances or a heap of very small objects.

san na' so.

san |

person |

na' |

half |

so |

CVY.N |

A couple of people.

bihuun jiris so.

bihuun |

pepper |

jiris |

pinch_of |

so |

CVY.N |

A pinch of pepper.

Fractions involving non-unit numerators can be constructed by using a
numeral with the partitive case of *di'is*, *ni'is* and
*pikis*:

bunas di'itis.

bunas |

two |

di'is-is |

one_third-PART |

Two-thirds.

di'as ni'itis.

di'as |

three |

ni'is-is |

quarter-PART |

Three quarters.

bunas pikitis.

bunas |

two |

pikis-is |

fifth-PART |

Two fifths.

These fractions form definite and indefinite cardinals the usual way:

kere ni'as pikitis sa.

kere |

cake |

ni'as |

four |

pikis-is |

fifth-PART |

sa |

CVY.M |

Four-fifths of a cake.

ni'as pikitis keres sa.

ni'as |

four |

pikis-is |

fifth-PART |

kere-s |

cake-PART |

sa. |

CVY.M |

Four-fifths of the cake.

#### Larger Fractions

Fractions involving larger denominators are usually not used outside of technical and mathematical applications. They are formed as the partitives of the corresponding cardinals.

Orthography | Cognate | Value |
---|---|---|

jirapikatis | jirapikas | 1/6 |

bunapikatis | bunapikas | 1/7 |

di'apikatis | di'apikas | 1/8 |

ni'apikatis | ni'apikas | 1/9 |

heibikatis | heibikas | 1/10 |

dibikatis | dibikas | 1/15 |

kuanatis | dibikas | 1/20 |

meijatis | meijas | 1/25 |

hujatis | hujas | 1/50 |

titiratis | titiras | 1/125 |

daranatis | daranas | 1/625 |

fiiranatis | fiiranas | 1/3125 |

These fractions differ from the smaller ones, in that when there are non-unit numerators, they do not change in form:

di'as bunapikatis

di'as |

three |

buna-pikas-is |

two-five-PART |

Three sevenths (3/7).

bunas ni'apikatis

bunas |

two |

ni'a-pikas-is |

four-five-PART |

Two ninths (2/9).

#### Genitive Case in Fractional Definite Cardinals

When a definite cardinal involves a fraction with non-unit numerator and a large denominator, the noun sometimes appears in the genitive case instead of the expected partitive case. For example:

bunas ni'apikatis paraman sei.

bunas |

two |

ni'a-pikas-is |

four-five-PART |

param-an |

rope-GEN |

sei. |

CVY.F |

Two ninths of the rope.

instead of the expected:

bunas ni'apikatis paramis sei.

bunas |

two |

ni'a-pikas-is |

four-five-PART |

param-is |

rope-PART |

sei. |

CVY.F |

Two ninths of the rope.

Native speakers perceive both forms as grammatical and more-or-less equivalent. In some contexts, the form with the partitive may be understood as a fraction of a particular object, whereas the form with the genitive may be understood as fractions of each of a group of objects. However, such nuances are usually resolved by context, rather than such subtle grammatical distinctions.

*kut* and *put*

Two special words, *kut* and *put* are sometimes used to
disambiguate certain constructions involving fractions.

*kut* means one unit of

, one instance of

, and is often
used in the sense of each one

.

na' kutis hebuaran sa muras dafan.

na' |

half |

kut-is |

each-PART |

he-buara-n |

PL-volcano-GEN |

sa |

CVY.M |

muras |

black |

dafan. |

FIN |

Half of each volcano is black.

*put* means a piece of, a fragment of, or some of a larger group:

na' putis hebuaran sa muras dafan.

na' |

half |

put-is |

some-PART |

he-buara-n |

PL-volcano-GEN |

sa |

CVY.M |

muras |

black |

dafan. |

FIN |

Half of the volcanoes are black.